The history open lesson. Theme: “The Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945” (transcript)

Dear boys, girls, pupils of Suvorov Military College, cadets, dear Pridnestrovians. Today's topic is very difficult – the Second World War and the Great Patriotic War. The topic that requires extensive knowledge in fact. I have to give you that story in a short period of time today, tell you about the events that our country went through. This is perhaps the most tragic and most victorious page in the history of our Soviet Motherland. Why is this necessary? There are many sources – textbooks, books, Internet resources. There are history teachers who give you knowledge in addition. I want to give not only front-line events, dates of the exploits of the Soviet people. I want to give you the history of diplomacy that preceded both World War II and the Great Patriotic War. In short. Of course, you don't have to remember everything. My goal is to arouse your interest in this history, so that you can then find the source yourself and delve deeper into this knowledge. What for? To remember your history, because there is no future without history. It's a hackneyed phrase, but that's how it really is.

I ask you to try to put yourself in the shoes of those guys, who faced the war face to face 83 years ago. Some of them were 15, 16, 17, 18 years old. They met at the very start of their lives something terrible – war. They didn’t break, they moved forward, they died, and they won. Try to put yourself in their shoes. Your peers were no different from you then, 83 years ago. Well, of course, they did not have mobile phones, the Internet or any of the amenities of civilization. The same people, the same children, the same emotions, the same attitude towards good and evil. I assure you, nothing new. They were the same as you. Please, imagine the morning of June 21, 1941. This was the end of school for many of your peers, this was the holidays, grandparents, pioneer camps, Artek, someone at home helped mom and dad with housework, played football in the yard. This was the childhood of all Soviet youth in principle. The country worked, no one suspected anything. Older children, who were 17 years old, who graduated 10th grade, had already passed state exams and were preparing for admission, preparing for the last call. They gathered in classes, auditoriums, discussed what would happen next, what path to choose, what profession to choose, what to become, how to be useful to the Soviet Motherland. Only a narrow circle of persons familiar with the matter was in the greatest tension. They understood that a catastrophe, which was only hours away, was inevitable.

There is a lot of information about the treachery and surprise of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War currently. This is difficult topic indeed, but let's try to understand these positions: perfidy and suddenness.

As for perfidy, this is absolutely fair, because it was fascist Germany that violated the non-aggression pact concluded with the Soviet Union, the so-called Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. This is about perfidy. As for suddenness – a little later. There is now a lot of information about this pact. Let's say even ideological movements. Many states see the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact as a conspiracy between two tyrants and celebrate the Day of Remembrance for the Victims of Totalitarian Regimes, but this is already an ideology. This is a story in fact, that is worth remembering and drawing conclusions from. Yes, of course, there was the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, no questions, but he was not the first, and that's the fact. The first agreement was the so-called Munich Agreement – agreement that was concluded on September 29-30, 1938. Who concluded this pact the Munich Agreement and why?

This peace treaty, the so-called peace treaty, was signed by four states: fascist Germany, fascist Italy, Great Britain and France. Treaty on the partition of Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia was deprived of its independence and divided without asking either the people or the leadership of this state. Moreover, a non-aggression pact, a peace treaty, was also signed between Great Britain and Nazi Germany on September 30, 1938. France signed the same agreement a little later. The Soviet Union remained practically isolated. The leadership of the Soviet Union tried to do something, and the Soviet Union sharply criticized the partition of Czechoslovakia and the occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, but no one listened to the Soviet Union. The of The Soviet Union leadership tried to unite with France and Britain in May 1939 to curb the aggressor – Nazi Germany. But this was unrewarded by success either.

The leadership of the Soviet Union understood the inevitability of war. It was inevitability. Something had to be done to delay the start of the Great Patriotic War. The only thing that became possible was the conclusion of a peace treaty. Of course, temporary, but peaceful. It was concluded on August 23, 1939 under the name “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact”. Dear boys and girls, there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the Munich Agreement and the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. There would be no second without the first. If we recognize the conspiracy of tyrants, then we must generalize and tell the truth. The pact was necessary.

So, after the so-called peace treaties, the leaders of European states, observing “diplomatic smiles,” began to intensively prepare for war, which was inevitable.

Here's the question. You are all adult persons, literate. You need to answer the question, “Why and who allowed Hitler to become Fuhrer?” Who was Hitler? Corporal, crippled, wounded in the First World War, beggar, failed artist. He became the Fuhrer, you know? Who allowed Germany to trample on the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1918, by which Germany was deprived of the opportunity to develop its army, navy and air force? Who financed the German economy? Who allowed the creation of the Wehrmacht. Who gave the technology for all this? The question is open. Please, think about it.

By the way, the Wehrmacht after the Munich Agreement, having occupied Czechoslovakia, created a springboard for an attack on the Soviet Union, while receiving all the technologies of Czechoslovakia, which were very high at that time. That's how it really happened.

The German armed forces received the Dortmund signal, which indicated the beginning of the Great Patriotic War at 13:00 on June 22, 1941 when the Soviet people were spending Saturday as usual. Nazi Germany and its allies sent 166 divisions against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front to implement the Barbarossa plan (the so-called plan of attack on the Soviet Union). This included 4.5 million people, 43 thousand guns and mortars, 4.5 thousand aircraft, 4 thousand tanks and self-propelled artillery and assault guns. 190 divisions were involved on the part of the Soviet Union – 3 million 300 thousand people, 60 thousand guns and mortars, 15.5 thousand tanks and self-propelled artillery units. The Germans seized the strategic initiative from the first hours of the start of the Great Patriotic War. Why did this happen?

First, let's return to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact pushed back the western border. The “Stalin Line” was built along its entire length. These are long-term fortified points, bunkers, which exist on the territory of Pridnestrovie. The new border was practically exposed. This is the first.

Secondly. The Generals such as Timoshenko and Zhukov were confident that the war would begin. There were in addition radio interceptions, intelligence reports and everything else. Stalin and the leadership of the Soviet Union neglected this information for some reason. We were not prepared for war.

The Red Army in addition did not have a defensive doctrine. This was a big problem. The result was a real disaster in the first months of the war, of course.

Nazi Germany and its allies attacked with three army groups – “North”, “South” and “Center”. Half an hour was allotted to overcome the border outpostsб according to the plan. Half an hour, but in fact, the border guards held out for weeks, months, died surrounded, but did not give up.

There was a feat of the Soviet people, of course. People fought, people held on. I want to give two examples. Senior Sergeant Nikolai Sirotinin was a twenty-year-old young man who, single-handedly conducting artillery fire, destroyed 11 tanks and 7 armored vehicles of the Nazis on July 17. He was killed in battle. He was buried with honors by the Germans, like a warrior. The second example: senior lieutenant Kolobanov, who, commanding a company of tankers, personally destroyed 22 tanks in an hour and a half of battle, and his company destroyed more than 40 tanks. How many such feats we will never know about in our lives. They happened. The enemy was advancing, but he was receiving serious resistance. Nowhere in Europe did he suffer such losses as in the Soviet Union.

Three army groups: “North”, “South” and “Center”. “North” Army Group was tasked with capturing Leningrad. South” Army Group was aimed at the Caucasus, Donbass, Crimea, with access to the Caucasus. “Center” Army Group was given the most ambitious task of capturing Moscow.

As a result of the offensive actions of Nazi Germany, Minsk fell on July 8, the blockade ring around Leningrad was encircled on September 8, Kyiv was taken on September 15, 1941, Donbass on October 17, Kharkov on October 25, Crimea on November 2 and Sevastopol was blocked. Of course, the main blow was aimed at the capital of the Soviet Motherland – Moscow.

There are a lot of arguments: whether Moscow would have fallen or not, or maybe, as under Napoleon, Napoleon occupied it, then retreated, and so we won. It was a completely different war, a completely different history, completely different technologies.

I will name several positions of the significance of Moscow. I assure you, if Moscow had fallen, the war would have been lost. Why is that? Firstly, Moscow was the center of military command and control. So, there were problems with this. If Moscow had fallen, it would have been practically absent. The second aspect: Moscow was a communications center. All communication lines passed through Moscow. The third aspect: it would be a profound ideological failure. Of course. This would definitely influence people, the defenders of the Fatherland. The fourth factor: Japan was waiting for the fall of Moscow to open a second front. It would probably be very difficult. It was unnoticed, but one of the most important factors in my opinion: Moscow is the center of railway communication in the Soviet Union, and in modern Russia. Everything passed through Moscow, all enterprises from the occupied territories were taken beyond the Urals and to Siberia, where the weapons of Victory were forged, without which it is impossible to imagine the further victory, the victorious May 1945. This is a different feat – the feat of children, old people and women, those who stood at the machines. I'll return later to this.

Moscow. The enemy was rushing towards Moscow, although Hitler adjusted his offensive actions in August and announced the need to first occupy the city of Kyiv with access to the Caucasus – to oil. However, Army Group “Center” was ready for battle and launched an assault on Moscow on September 30, 1941 (Operation Typhoon). There was panic in the city. Moscow has been placed in a state of siege, but the State Defense Committee is making a very important decision on the defense of Moscow. The future Marshal of Victory Zhukov was appointed commander of the Western Front on October 10, 1941. A bright personality in history. It was possible thanks to him to reassemble the completely destroyed Western Front. The Western Front was completely destroyed; it was created from scratch. It was he who, crawling on his belly, gathered units through the trenches, personally, by his example, spurring on the soldiers to defend Moscow. It is a fact. His contribution is very large and cannot be understated.

I will highlight another very important ideological moment – November 7, 1941, the Red Army parade on Red Square in Moscow. The parade took place in the frost, when the enemy was already standing close to the walls of Moscow and examining the spiers of the Kremlin through binoculars. There was a lot of reasoning about why then, it was necessary to fight, they say, there was no need. There are a lot of armchair strategists who talk about the significance, insignificance, and uselessness of parades. Let me express my opinion. Firstly, the parade was needed to raise the spirit of the Red Army soldiers and maintain the hope of Muscovites that the enemy would be defeated and Moscow would be saved. Secondly: today's parades are a tribute to the memory of our ancestors, our great-grandfathers, our grandfathers, our fathers, those who stood up. This is a parade for them and for us, of course.

So, Zhukov managed to stabilize the fronts, and launched a counteroffensive on December 5, December 6, with the arrival of reinforcements in the form of Siberian divisions. The enemy lost significant territories and was driven back 250 kilometers during the Moscow offensive operation. Regions of Moscow, Tula, and Ryazan were liberated. This was the first strategic victory of the Red Army in the Great Patriotic War. Of course, not the last.

The Soviet command set the same ambitious goals for the Red Army in 1942after the triumphant Moscow offensive operation at the beginning of 1942. What goals were set for 1942? This was the defense of Moscow, the containment of the enemy, the liberation of Leningrad and the capture of the city of Kharkov with access to the Dnieper, of course. That is, offensive operations were planned in many ways.

These decisions were probably wrong, as history has shown. By the way, these decisions were openly opposed by the future Marshal of Victory Rokossovsky, who said that it is impossible to wear out the enemy on the offensive, especially in the spring off-road: if you are going to wear out the enemy, then wear them out in defense. Nazi Germany surpassed the Soviet Union in the technical production of weapons and ammunition. The Wehrmacht responded to one artillery shot from the Soviet side with three shots. There was a threefold superiority. The industry that was evacuated beyond the Urals, to Siberia, has not yet reached the industrial level. It was hard, but there was a desire to quickly expel the enemy from the territory of the Soviet Union. 

It is necessary speaking about 1942 to highlight several stories. The first story is the siege of Leningrad. The years 1942 and 1943 were the most difficult. The history of the siege of Leningrad deserves a separate lecture, a separate film adaptation. The blockade ring was encircled on September 8, 1941, as I already said. The siege of Leningrad was lifted on January 27, 1944. The city was under siege for 872 days. The blockade ring was partially broken, but the problems were not resolved on January 18, 1943. As a result of constant shelling and starvation, about one million Soviet citizens died. Of these, about six hundred thousand are due to hunger. Children, old people, people of different generations died, but the city held on, by some miracle it produced ammunition and guns, repaired tanks, and provided defense. It was miracle. The Germans couldn't believe it. They underestimated the Russian spirit, the spirit of the Russian man, the spirit of the Russian, Soviet soldier.

I’ll give you an example of bread standards. The bread norm was 500 grams for soldiers, 375 grams for workers in hot shops, 250 grams for other workers, 125 grams of bread per day for children and pensioners. The bread was made of gluten, bran, and sawdust somewhere. Please, take 125 grams of bread, look at it and think about how it was possible to survive during 872 days.

People in addition to tanks thought about the future, about culture. The outstanding Soviet composer Dmitry Shostakovich began composing his famous Seventh Symphony in besieged Leningrad. He was a member of the fire brigade and was constantly eager to go to the front line at the same time. He was almost forcefully evacuated to Kuibyshev, understanding that such a person must be preserved for the future, for future generations. He completed the Seventh Symphony in Kuibyshev, its first presentation took place there on March 5, 1942, but the most important event for this symphony was its presentation in besieged Leningrad on August 9, 1942 for the Soviet people, for the siege survivors. The hall was full. It took place during shelling. The Soviet command did everything possible to prevent people from being defeated during the performance of the symphony. The symphony was broadcast throughout Leningrad. The Germans heard it. I read the memoirs of Germans who heard this symphony on the 9th of August. They were shocked. They thought the city was dead, but the city lived. Many people began to understand that everything was not so simple, that they could not break the spirit of the Soviet people.

The enemy rushed to Stalingrad after unsuccessful Rzhev-Vyazemsk and Smolensk-Kharkov Soviet operations. The Battle of Stalingrad began on July 17, 1942 and lasted until February 2, 1943. Stalin signed order No. 227 “Not a step back” at the most difficult moment, July 28, 1942. This was a forced order. We had to fight.

Germany and its allies Italy, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and Croatia were rushing to Stalingrad. The main attack on Stalingrad took place on August 23, 1942. This is the 6th Army of Paulus, this is the air army and the tank group of Hoth, which moved along the Volga, attacked the flank of Stalingrad. From 30 to 60 thousand civilians died in Stalingrad as a result of this barbaric raid, according to various sources. The enemy got stuck in Stalingrad. It was not an easy walk. It was possible to stabilize the front and launch a counter-offensive against German troops on November 17, 1942 thanks to the leadership talent of such commanders as Zhukov, Rokossovsky, Vatutin, Vasilevsky, Chuikov, Shumilov and Eremenko. As I already said, the Battle of Stalingrad ended on February 2, the Germans lost about 500 thousand killed, 200 thousand were captured, including Field Marshal Paulus. One can highlight the successful offensive operation of Soviet troops in the Caucasus, where the enemy was also driven back 600 kilometers at the end of 1942.

The results of 1942 in brief: Hitler’s plans to seize Soviet territories, access to oil and new continents were thwarted. The losses of Nazi Germany and its allies amounted to more than one million people. This is 95 percent of all losses in 1942 of Nazi Germany and the Allies. 95 percent. It's about contribution and who wins. Of course, the failure to open a second front, which the Soviet Union needed. There was an understanding of the inevitability of the collapse of Nazi Germany by the end of 1942.

1943 had a difficult start. The German was still strong. He was an experienced warrior who conquered all of Europe. Of course, the Germans sought to take revenge for the defeat at Stalingrad. They planned the Citadel Operation, that is, Kursk attack. Nazi Germany and its allies concentrated the following forces in the Kursk direction in the summer of 1943: about a million personnel, 2.5 thousand tanks, 10 thousand guns, 2050 aircraft. They were met by 2 million personnel, 5 thousand tanks, 19 thousand guns and more than 10 thousand aircraft from the Soviet Union. There is a twofold or more advantage of the Red Army over the Wehrmacht forces. Why did this happen? Here we return to the labor feat, thanks to which we managed to remove all enterprises from the occupied territories and put them back into operation. I'll give you the numbers so you can understand what I'm talking about. 2593 enterprises were evacuated to the Urals and Siberia, of which 1523 were large enterprises during 1941-1942. The Great Patriotic War lasted 1418 days. Please, divide and you get that almost two enterprises opened per day. Two enterprises. Where did these enterprises open? In an open field, beyond the Urals, in Siberia, in the cold, in the heat, in the wind, in the rain, in the open air. Children, old people and women worked there. This is a colossal feat. By the way, Hitler refused to believe in this. He received reports that an evacuation was underway, but he did not believe it. He said: how is this possible, who can do it? Yes, we can. A Russian person can do it. It is a fact. The Soviet Union was already superior in technical power to all of Europe, all allies of Nazi Germany and was able to forge the weapon of Victory and future victories by 1943 thanks to this feat, the feat of children, old people and women.

The Germans went on the offensive on July 5, 1943. Soviet troops met them with battle. The Red Army launched a counter operation called “Kutuzov” on July 12, 1943. A grandiose tank battle took place in Prokhorovka on July 12, 1943. There have never been anything like this before or since. The initiative passed from hand to hand. The enemy wavered and ran. Belgorod was liberated as a result on August 5, Orel on August 6, and Kharkov was liberated on August 23. This ended Operation Kutuzov.

The Red Army was successful. Kyiv was liberated on November 6, 1943. Next – Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye. The Red Army operated successfully in the Kerch direction, Smolensk direction, and Kalinin direction. The enemy was driven back 1300 kilometers. Nazi Germany and its allies suffered colossal losses of personnel and equipment, which were no longer comparable to their capabilities. The brilliant talent of our commanders has emerged.

Nazi Germany no longer thought about offensives as 1944 approached. It was thinking only about defense. I can highlight the following successful offensive operations of the Red Army in 1944: the Leningrad-Novgorod operation to liberate Leningrad, the Korsun-Shevchenko operation (liberated Ukraine), the Crimean operation, which made it possible to liberate the Crimean peninsula, Operation Bagration (liberation of Belarus), Lvov- Sandomierz offensive operation (Western Ukraine was liberated), Iasi-Kishinev operation (the Moldavian SSR and Southern Ukraine were liberated), Estonia, Lithuania and almost all of Latvia were liberated, the East Carpathian operation and others.

As a result, Nazi Germany was completely squeezed out of the territory of the Soviet Union, and the liberation of Europe began. The States such as Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland left the Axis states. Nazi Germany was deprived of access to rich oil fields.

Another significant event took place in 1944. It is remembered and will soon celebrate the 80th birthday. The opening of a second front by the Allies, Great Britain and the United States was on the 6th of June, 1944. Those who are trying to steal history from you and me say that the Soviet Union was not in the war at all. Do you understand? They have the conscience to say that only the allies – Great Britain and the USA – won. Of course, there was a contribution from the allies. There is not even a doubt about it, but let's figure out how the Allies acted after the landing in Normandy, France on June 6, 1944. Yes, the Allies advanced and took positions in Belgium and the Netherlands. However, Hitler decided to carry out counterattacks. He gathered forces into 25 divisions under the command of Field Marshal Nobel to do this. They easily managed to break through the Allied defenses through the Ardennes to Antwerp and blocked the US and British forces in a confined space. They were ready to attack Strasbourg. The position of the Allied forces was simply catastrophic. Nothing, even a miracle could not save them. Nevertheless, on January 6, 1945, the British Prime Minister Churchill turned to Stalin. I want to read this letter so that you understand the stress of this man and the inevitability of the defeat of the Allies. So, Churchill’s letter to Stalin:

“The battle in the West is very heavy and, at any time, large decisions may be called for from the Supreme Command. You know yourself from your own experience how very anxious the position is when a very broad front has to be defended after temporary loss of the initiative. It is General Eisenhower’s great desire and need to know in outline what you plan to do, as this obviously affects all his and our major decisions. Our Envoy, Air Chief Marshal Tedder, was last night reported weather-bound in Cairo. His journey has been much delayed through no fault of yours. In case he has not reached you yet, I shall be grateful if you can tell me whether we can count on a major Russian offensive on the Vistula front, or elsewhere, during January, with any other points you may care to mention. I shall not pass this most secret information to anyone except Field Marshal Brooke and General Eisenhower, and only under conditions of the utmost secrecy. I regard the matter as urgent".

No one could really save the Allies, even a miracle. Only a Soviet soldier. Only the Red Army. The next day Stalin replied to Churchill. I will also read this letter, this telegram:

“We are mounting an offensive, but at the moment the weather is unfavorable. Still, in view of our Allies’ position on the Western Front, GHQ of the Supreme Command have decided to complete preparations at a rapid rate and, regardless of weather, to launch large-scale offensive operations along the entire Central Front not later than the second half of January. Rest assured we shall do all in our power to support the valiant forces of our Allies.”

Yes, indeed, Stalin hurried the front commanders, and the offensive began two weeks earlier. What is an attack two weeks earlier? This is a different convoy, ammunition not delivered on time, untimely supplies, loss of personnel. It was necessary to save the allies, who were clearly on the verge of death.

The East Prussian operation and the Vistula-Oder operation began on January 12-13, 1945. Almost the entire territory of Poland and part of East Germany were liberated. Hitler removed the divisions from the Strasbourg direction and threw them against the Red Army, where they were destroyed. The allies were saved.

Of course, there is a role for allies. Don't doubt it, but what role? In what degree? Dear young men, in case you argue with someone about the contribution to the victory of the Red Army or allies, I want to arm you with an interesting fact. Please, ask your interlocutor, ask the following question: “Name at least one successful offensive operation of the Allies on the Western Front in Europe, at least one". There is none of them, but you can name dozens of successful offensive operations of the Red Army. It is a fact.

I have already spoken about the feat of children, old people and women, but there was also Lend-Lease. Of course, many thanks to our allies, but not everything was free, a lot was for money, for gold. It was a business. Do you know when the Soviet Union finally paid off Lend-Lease? Rather not the Soviet Union, but the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation paid off Lend-Lease for assistance in the victory over Nazi Germany in 2006 finally.

Of course, the percentages are not comparable. There was help. We must be grateful for the help and contribution of our allies, but we need to understand the feat of the Red Army, the feat of the Soviet Union.

Thanks to the above offensive operations, a springboard was created for the assault on Berlin, which took place on April 16, 1945. The Reichstag was stormed on April 29. the Victory Banner was hoisted over the Reichstag on April 30. Hitler committed suicide on April 30. The act of unconditional surrender of Germany was signed on the night of May 8-9. This act was signed by Marshal of Victory Zhukov on behalf of the Soviet Union. The Great Patriotic War, which lasted 1418 days and nights, ended.

No state in the world has paid such a high price for the victory over fascism. According to various sources (they still cannot come to a common understanding), from 27 million to 40 million people died. There are still 2.4 million people missing. The material losses were enormous – approximately 25 trillion dollars in today's equivalent.

I would like to touch on another important topic – concentration camps, speaking about the losses and horror of war. People were destroyed on an industrial scale for the first time in history. There were engineers, office workers, some bureaucrats who were engaged in the physical destruction of people. This was done by fascist Germany and the states of Western Europe – quite recently from the point of view of history. Medical experiments were carried out on people, on children, on the elderly, drugs were tested, people were poisoned in gas chambers, burned in ovens, instruments of death were produced. I will name a number of the most terrible camps, which for the most part were liberated by Soviet soldiers, and this must be remembered: Buchenwald (Germany), Bergen-Belsen (Germany), Mauthausen (Austria), Dachau (Germany), Sobibor (Poland), Chelmno (Poland) ), Majdanek (Poland), Belzec (Poland), Treblinka (Poland), Auschwitz (Poland), Salaspils (Latvia). Torture, gas chambers, crematorium ovens. The result of Nazism was tens of millions of dead people.

The triumph of the Soviet soldier and the Red Army – the Victory Parade took place on June 24, 1945. Two hundred banners and standards of Nazi Germany were thrown at the foot of the mausoleum. The parade was commanded by Marshal Rokossovsky, and Marshal Zhukov hosted the parade. Representatives of all branches of the military, marshals, generals, and the most distinguished officers and soldiers of the Red Army took part in the parade. Zhukov, Rokossovsky, Vasilevsky, Konev, Govorov, Malenkov, Tolbukhin, Meretskov, Bagramyan and many other marshals and generals stood out among the Marshals of Victory. The soldiers and officers of the Red Army, home front workers, and the victorious people in general will always be remembered.

Of course, times are not easy now, you know. I was asked the question in a conversation with diplomats one day: “What is your path? What will you choose? I literally said the following, “We don’t need to choose, we have long chosen our path – respect for our history, our ancestors, our languages, literature, the exploits of our grandfathers and fathers. Our path has been determined – the path of the Pridnestrovian people. This is memory". Those who forget have a sad fate, no matter how strong they may seem today. Therefore, dear girls, boys, Pridnestrovians, remember, study history, thank your fathers, grandfathers, great-grandfathers for the victory over Nazi Germany, over fascism, and join the Immortal Regiment on the 9th of May.